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Bitwise Operator in Java

In Java, an operator is a symbol that performs the specified operations. In this section, we will discuss only the bitwise operator and its types with proper examples.

Types of Bitwise Operator

There are six types of the bitwise operator in Java:

  • Bitwise AND
  • Bitwise exclusive OR
  • Bitwise inclusive OR
  • Bitwise Compliment
  • Bit Shift Operators
Operators Symbol Uses
Bitwise AND & op1 & op2
Bitwise exclusive OR ^ op1 ^ op2
Bitwise inclusive OR | op1 | op2
Bitwise Compliment ~ ~ op
Bitwise left shift << op1 << op2
Bitwise right shift >> op1 >> op2
Unsigned Right Shift Operator >>> op >>> number of places to shift

Let's explain the bitwise operator in detail.

Bitwise AND (&)

It is a binary operator denoted by the symbol &. It returns 1 if and only if both bits are 1, else returns 0.

Bitwise Operator in Java

Let's use the bitwise AND operator in a Java program.

BitwiseAndExample.java

Output

x & y = 8

Bitwise exclusive OR (^)

It is a binary operator denoted by the symbol ^ (pronounced as caret). It returns 0 if both bits are the same, else returns 1.

Bitwise Operator in Java

Let's use the bitwise exclusive OR operator in a Java program.

BitwiseXorExample.java

Output

x ^ y = 1

Bitwise inclusive OR (|)

It is a binary operator denoted by the symbol | (pronounced as a pipe). It returns 1 if either of the bit is 1, else returns 0.

Bitwise Operator in Java

Let's use the bitwise inclusive OR operator in a Java program.

BitwiseInclusiveOrExample.java

Output

x | y = 9

Bitwise Complement (~)

It is a unary operator denoted by the symbol ~ (pronounced as the tilde). It returns the inverse or complement of the bit. It makes every 0 a 1 and every 1 a 0.

Bitwise Operator in Java

Let's use the bitwise complement operator in a Java program.

BitwiseComplimentExample.java

Output

~x = -3

Bit Shift Operators

Shift operator is used in shifting the bits either right or left. We can use shift operators if we divide or multiply any number by 2. The general format to shift the bit is as follows:

For example, if a=10

Java provides the following types of shift operators:

  • Signed Right Shift Operator or Bitwise Right Shift Operator
  • Unsigned Right Shift Operator
  • Signed Left Shift Operator or Bitwise Left Shift Operator

Note: Java does not support the unsigned left shift operator (<<<).

Signed Right Shift Operator (>>)

The signed right shift operator shifts a bit pattern of a number towards the right with a specified number of positions and fills 0. The operator is denoted by the symbol >>. It also preserves the leftmost bit (sign bit). If 0 is presented at the leftmost bit, it means the number is positive. If 1 is presented at the leftmost bit, it means the number is negative.

In general, if we write a>>n, it means to shift the bits of a number toward the right with a specified position (n). In the terms of mathematics, we can represent the signed right shift operator as follows:

Bitwise Operator in Java

Note: When we apply right shift operator on a positive number, we get the positive number in the result also. Similarly, when we apply right shift operator on a negative number, we get the negative number in the result also.

Example: Apply the signed right shift operator with specified positions 4 if x = 256 and x = -256.

If x = 256

256 >> 4

256/24 = 16

If x = -256

-256 >> 4

-256/24 = -16

In the above example, we have observed that after shifting the operator 256 converted into 16 and -256 converted into -16.

Let's create a Java program and implement the left shift operator.

SignedRightShiftOperatorExample.java

Output

 x>>2 = 12

Signed Left Shift Operator (<<)

The signed left shift operator (<<) shifts a bit pattern to the left. It is represented by the symbol <<. It also preserves the leftmost bit (sign bit). It does not preserve the sign bit.

In general, if we write a<<n, it means to shift the bits of a number toward the left with specified position (n). In the terms of mathematics, we can represent the signed right shift operator as follows:

Bitwise Operator in Java

Example 1: What will be the result after shifting a<<3. The value of a is 20.

Representation of 20 in binary is = 00010100

After performing the left shift operator, we get:

a << 3 = 10100000 (last three bits are the filled bits)

a << 3 = 160

Let's check the result by using the formula.

20 << 3

20*23 = 20*8 = 160

Example 2: What will be the result after shifting a<<2. The value of a is -10.

Representation of -10 in binary is = 11110110

a<<2 = 11011000 = -40

Let's check the result by using the formula.

-10 << 3

-10*22 = -10*4 = -40

Let's create a Java program and implement the signed left shift operator.

SignedLeftShiftOperatorExample.java

Output

 x<<1 = 24

Unsigned Right Shift Operator (>>>)

It shifts a zero at the leftmost position and fills 0. It is denoted by the symbol >>>. Note that the leftmost position after >> depends on the sign bit. It does not preserve the sign bit.

Example: If a=11110000 and b=2, find a>>>b?

a >>> b = 11110000 >>> 2 = 00111100

The left operand value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand and the shifted bits are filled up with zeros. Excess bits shifted off to the right are discarded.

Therefore, before shifting the bits the decimal value of a is 240, and after shifting the bits the decimal value of a is 60.

Let's create a Java program and use the unsigned right shift operator.

UnsignedRightShiftOperatorExample.java

Output

 x>>>2 = 5





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